Sunday, August 24, 2014

You Need Grit (Teacher Grit) to Tap into the Power of Partner Reading

"Just the two of us, we can make it if we try, just the two of us, just the two of us, building castles in the sky, just the two of us, you and I . . . " From Just the Two of Us by Grover Washington Jr.
                                 
We all come to that place when we are first trying on workshop teaching when our reading partnerships get the best of us. We want to throw our hands up in the air in frustration, and exclaim, "Forget it! It's just not going to work with this group.  Take heart, we have all been there (and continue to struggle with getting the most out of this powerful reading tool). However, the best resource that we have for coping with the challenges of sustaining partnerships is each other.  What are some helpful tips that you would give to teachers who are falling into the partner pit of despair?


                                  


  
It has been helpful for me when I feel like throwing in the towel, and removing the following Jame's Britton quote from my bulletin board as it taunts me from across the classroom, "reading and writing float on a sea of talk" to remind yourself of why we NEED to have reading partnerships in the first place.  Please feel free to add to the list of reasons below:
  1. Partnerships lift the level of understanding. Isn't true that you understand what you have read better when you have the chance to talk it out with someone else?
  2. Talk provides teachers with multiple opportunities to assess comprehension. Who is it that said talk is a window into our understanding?  We can listen to partner conversations through the lens of reading skills.
  3. Talk builds a sense of community.  Think about the communities or groups that we are a part of. Most would agree that the communities that thrive are the groups where there is trust that it cultivated through relationships. How do we build relationships?  That's right, through conversation. Talk allows us to connect with others.
  4. Talk helps to support stamina. You might question this as when reading is interspersed with talk, don't we have less time to read. However, stamina is not just about time, in fact when we think of time, it might be that volume is a better word choice. Stamina means energy, staying power, grit, and resilience - it's that feeling that when the going gets tough; the tough get going. Talk breathes new life into our reading and gives us the energy to push through the tough parts and keep going. Talk helps us maintain our momentum.
  5. Talk supports oral language development. It provides students with multiple opportunities for repeated practice in comprehending (listening) and expressing their ideas (speaking) with deliberate scaffolds and support from proficient speakers.
  6. Talk promotes a thinking curriculum.  The notion of a thinking curriculum is summed up well by the following quote, "Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire." In classrooms where there is a thinking curriculum in place we can observe the marriage of content and process in the classroom.  Communication is an essential skill and so we need to provide students with authentic opportunities to engage in conversation in order to support them in becoming effective communicators.   
The following two articles are great resources for extending the conversation with colleagues or making the argument for partner reading (in spite of challenges it poses in terms of management) Why Talk is Important In Classrooms and A Thinking Curriculum.


If we start partner reading in our Kindergarten classrooms with our five year olds (see the video below from Tracey Fritch)  


                                        


and continue partner reading through first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth grade and beyond Imagine the possibilities . . . 

What should teachers consider when creating partnerships? What do strong reading partnerships look and sound like? What are predictable problems that we will face when launching and sustaining partnership work in reading? We will consider these and other questions in future posts.

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

What Can We Do About The Kid Who________? Dramatic Ways to Help Every Student Shine, Feel Safe, and Desire to Write and Revise and Write Again!

From the archives: The following are notes from a speech that Katherine Bomer delivered at the July 2010 TCRWP Writing Institute.  

One of the things that I love to do for inspiration is to reread notebooks of speeches I've heard from people I admire.  This morning I stumbled on one such speech. I feel like it is something great to keep in our Writing Tool Kit when we confer with students or to reread at the start of workshop as kids are settling into their writing so as to remind us that potential and promise stand before us if we ignite the spark.

As teachers we ask, what about the kid who has nothing to write about or  . . . .?
·        ·      says “I’m done!”
·         just writes about _________________
·         struggles with mechanics and/or conventions of writing
·         doesn't elaborate
·         doesn't revise or edit


It’s important to remember that we can’t measure the hearts and minds of kids who are composing meaning on the page.

1. We need to keep close in mind the words of the late Don Murray, “You have to write badly in order to write well.”  Remember badly means exploratory, it means helping a fledgling writer find the word or line and spinning some the magic around it.  

Wreck this Journal by Keri Smith is a great exploration into writing with wild abandon, respecting the messiness on the page, and seeing where it takes you.  You can learn more about her work at http://www.kerismith.com/.


2. ‘Assume greatness’ If we approach a child thinking that they can’t, they won’t. We need to believe them into the writer they are.

3. Keep it real. We need to do the work of a writer if we want our students to do the same. We need to slow our own process as writers, we need to keep it real and show students that real writers struggle, and we are all real writers.  In the end, we need to help students find real authentic reasons to write, and send their words out into the world.  The beauty of the process approach is it helps kids see and find the significance in their lives.

4. Writers (and kids) need other people (feedback, support, camaraderie) as “the process of the becoming literate is inherently a social one.” Anne Hass Dyson.  You can learn more about her research and stance on the intersection between literacy and childhood here: http://education.illinois.edu/people/ahdyson.

5. Find the brilliance and beauty in a student’s piece. We are led by error, if we don’t encourage risk taking, we are inviting voiceless/bored writing from our students. Remember error is the seed bed for the imagination.  Find places in student writing to name the brilliance that is there.

6. A final exhortation to was to love the kid who _______________.  As teachers and as teachers of writing, we need to love and accept kids who are different. It begins with respect. Hold onto an image of kids who can, will and do.

Friday, January 3, 2014

Revision Across the Writing Process


I have been thinking a lot about my one little word for 2014. I have resolved to go with revision. Revision is not just about writing, but about life. The same fear that gnaws at us at the very thought of revising the words on the page is the fear that can sometimes prevent us from making choices that take us on a new path, course or direction in life.

I had the privilege of learning about revision alongside Maggie Beattie Roberts and Audra Robb from the Teachers College Reading and Writing Project during the Summer Writing Institutes 2011 and 2012. Over the next few posts, I am going to revisit the notes from these past summer institutes and explore not only how revision can lift the quality of our writing, but in so doing, I hope to also think about the power of revision to lift the quality of our life.

During over first day, Maggie helped us to think about the qualities of writing alongside the different stages of the writing process.

Writing Process
Collecting
Developing
Drafting
Revision
Editing/Publishing
Qualities of Writing
Meaning
Structure
Elaboration
Craft
Voice

How do we teach students to revise while collecting entries? After all, don't students need to have writing on the page to in order to revise it.  It made me think, though, how often do I encourage students to revisit previous entries in their Writer's Notebooks.  This is a habit I would like to encourage, and an option I would like students to entertain more without making it a mandate.  I need to think more about how to build it into their repertoire.  

One method for doing this might be building it into the link of the mini-lesson, and in the link remind students to: Remember that you can always go back into your notebook and revisit entries that you have written earlier to revise them.

Maggie directed us to this great article Revision Strategies of Student Writers and Experienced Adult Writers (Sommers, N.) where student and experienced writers comment on their definition of revision, and what it means to them.  One thing that I would like to work on more with students is returning to an entry across several days to revise it for meaning, significance, and purpose.  Maggie outlined some of the following strategies, which I feel would make for a great "cheat sheet" while conferring into the collecting work students are doing. 

While I often do not spend a long time collecting in a UoS, I am toying with extending the collecting phase to allow more time for revision while collecting or keeping collecting short and embedding some of these strategies in teaching shares and mid-workshop teaching points. 

Below are strands of teaching points for revising while writing entries, revisiting entries written earlier, and strategies that help writers focus on meaning and significance inside of entries to lift the level of the writing.

Strategies to Collect Entries with Meaning in Mind 
  • Begin with place.  “It lives in the deepest part of ourself.” Fletcher
  • Our body is a map of our lives.  Scan it – write from a memory
  • Let smells or music (songs) bring you back to memories once lost

Strategies to Revise for Revisiting Entries
  • Remember audience. Think: Who is your reader? How might they affect your writing? How would you write differently if you were writing for (audience)?
  • Rewrite the beginning lines of your entry.
  • Start the entry in different places.
  • The bigger the issue/the smaller your write.  Pick the smallest (most manageable) part and start there. 
Strategies to Create Meaning, Significance, and Purpose Inside Entries
  • Writers use powerful images or objects (which stand for something bigger – symbol) and weaves them throughout the piece.  This image unifies the piece (beginning – middle –end).
  • Writers use a lot of colorful language to jazz up their writing. They choose words wisely and words that have power.  Writers choose words that are imbued with power and feeling (connotation) and that these are tied to significance, paint a vivid picture and see it in your mind.
  • Writers seek to connect with an audience through emotion and give a lot of emotions to help readers feel with them.  
  • Use flashback and flash forward. 
  • Think about powerful actions and begin with them.  Create a balanced structure to take your audience on a journey.
  • Weave in or repeat a powerful quote a quote that is connected to the meaning and intention of the piece.
  • Uses varied sentence structure (pace, cadence, tone.)
  • There is a balance of word choice and image. Use shocking comparisons to leave an impression on the reader.
Over the next few weeks, I hope to focus on revision inside of writing workshop, and will support students with building a revision mindset or stance when writing. Who is with me? I would love to post some examples of student writing when practicing this work to show revision in action.  Please let me know if you would like to study this together. 

Also, comment below on revision success stories (or attempts) in your classroom. What have you found effective when teaching students to embrace revision? I leave you with this quote from Truman Capote.

“I’m all for the scissors. I believe more in the scissors than I do in the pencil.” Truman Capote, Conversations With Capote, by Lawrence Grobel, 1985

Sunday, December 15, 2013

What I Learned from Carl Anderson in 2010

Several years ago I had the chance to study with Carl Anderson for a week at a TCRWP Summer Institute on the topic: Enduring Goals that Last Across the Year: Link Units of Study into Learning Pathways to Support Revision, Independence and Vigor.  

After writing yesterday about the dangers of missing the writers in the writing curriculum, I revisited notes that I had written while listening to Carl. You know that something powerful is being said when it is timeless and true . . . even several years later.

He spoke to how we were in the best and worst of times in the teaching of writing. It is the best in that there is so much curriculum material out there, but it is also the worst because it is easy to forget that these materials were not written with OUR kids in mind.  This begs the question: How can we draw on the best of both worlds . . . How can we make use of the materials that we have at our fingertips, while at the same time, design units of study that will meet the needs of our students?

Through our work that week, Carl helped us to realize that our goal should be to teach students central ideas and understandings about writing not just about the genres we teach.

Carl spoke to the importance of goal setting with kids in our class.  He shared how important it is to have conversations with students about curriculum, and discuss with them how our writing units can support their goals.

His beautiful description of units as chapters in an ongoing narrative that helps students grow as writers across the year reminded us that we needed to look past a single conference, a single workshop and think about a student's learning pathway.

He spoke to how the key to curriculum design is to decide (based on assessment) what are the lines of growth for writers in your classroom, and then choose to work on just a couple of these goals inside of a unit.  As we think about each writer, it is important to work with them on a particular goal across several units to help them "develop" as writers.  The decision belongs to us - the teacher - What are the most important things to teach the writer(s) in front of me? Carl spoke about Tom Newkirk's work and how Tom shared that the two biggest problems writers struggle with (no matter what their age) are focus and elaboration.  

However, the idea that he kept coming back to, similar to the familiar mantra: teach the writer not the writing or we teach children not curriculum was that we teach writers not units.   What are some of the biggest issues that the writers in front of you are facing at the moment? How are your teaching plans responding to those needs?



Saturday, December 14, 2013

The Secret Lives of Boy Writers

I am afraid . . . Afraid that I am squashing the love of writing out of some of the third graders that walk through the doors of my classroom.  Common Core State Standards, Standardized Testing, Bottom Lines and other pressures are being exerted on me, and I don't know that I am handling it well.  When these kinds of pressures are exerted on me, I find that I endeavor to CONTROL the environment around me more, in the hope that if I can control the outcome more. So I am afraid of taking risks, afraid of deviating from the path (curriculum), and afraid to listen to students because I know that the students will see straight through me. They will see that I am absent from my teaching because I know some of what I am doing is not in my students best interests.

When did I realize that I had not recruited students to author a writing curriculum for our writer's workshop with me and left them out of the conversation . . . it was when I discovered the secret life of a boy writer, who I struggled to get to write in the classroom. I am new at a grade level this year, and when you are "new" to anything, there is a learning curve, and I feel like external forces are robbing me of this learning curve. Here are some pages that a writer in my classroom has been secretly writing outside of whole class units: 

How do you strike a balance between helping students to write well, and exposing them (and teaching them) to write in different forms and genres while at the same time honoring student choice (and not just choice about topic, but choice about projects)? I have been teaching inside of a writing workshop for the past 12 years, and I long for the days when teachers were able to author a curriculum WITH their students, and FOR their students.  

In Assessing Writers, Carl Anderson suggests that the following questions should guide our thinking and planning work for writing workshop: What are our students' needs? What are our students' interests? What have our students studied in previous grades? What units doe we know well enough to teach? What curriculum mandates are we required to meet? I feel like we often take into account that last question, and perhaps even the second question when authoring curriculum and looking at units of study in writing workshop.

In our drive to ensure consistent practices and scaffolded curriculum, have we left our students behind? In looking at our curriculum calendars, where do we see the interests of our students? Where do we see units we have authored based on student needs?  I feel that I am progressing in a lockstep fashion with colleagues on the grade level, and don't know if the writers in my classroom are with me. How many of them live secret writing lives outside of the writing workshop?  In these last two weeks before the December Break, I have decided to rebel a bit, while colleagues are working on holiday crafts and activities, I am going to attempt a miniature unit on independence before we start our next unit in January, entitled Changing the World: Writing Persuasive Speeches, Editorials and Petitions, which I am really excited about teaching next month.

In The Art of Teaching Reading, Lucy Calkins asserts that "each of us needs to do the soul searching and the research necessary to define our role as advocates for our profession" (2001).  I feel like the powers that be are trying to rob us of this time to study, reflect, and be critical of the work that we are doing because we are being told to do it. What is the difference between consistency, and conformity? How can we make sure that we don't cross the line?

Thursday, August 29, 2013

A Toolbox of Lessons from Fiction Writing Can Lift the Level of All the Writing that Kids Do

Here are some more notes from the archives.  This particular speech was from the August 2007 Writing Institute and was delivered by Colleen Cruz of the Teachers College Reading and Writing Project.  As we begin to start up our writing workshops, it is important to keep in mind the lessons that fiction can teach us regardless of what kind of writing we are engaged in - especially personal narrative writing. Disclaimer: However, these are notes, and reflect the thinking and reflections of the note taker, which might not align completely with what the speaker shared.

Kids love fiction! It is mostly what they read.  We need to use fiction for our touchstone texts in other UoS – especially personal narrative.  It is powerful because it draws on the imagination and is not limited to facts (moves toward abstract).

The personal narrative is the cornerstone of writing workshop.  It is the closest bridge to fiction.  The similarities include: dialogue, setting, internal thought – opportunities to preview character action, and in-the-moment writing.

Help Young Writers Develop Setting, Character, Story Tension and Language
Setting
Make sure that we have some, it is ONLY described in-depth when it is significant.  Here are some important tips on when to include setting: it matters to the story because it is connected to the deeper meaning of the text, the setting might show us character emotions, or the setting could be a metaphor or symbol in the story.

Character
A character has to want something for the story to work.  What is the character’s motivation and desire? What is driving them? 

It is also important to remember that the character’s internal and external qualities are connected.  When developing characters think about how the character feels, what the character wants, how they look.

Secondary characters need to play a role and be important and well-developed as we write our stories.  Predictable Problems: Often students will lose the main character OR lose the secondary character (emphasizing one over the other).

Finally, each character needs to have personality traits and quirks – cannot build Flat Stanley characters (characters need depth and dimension).  In order to encourage authentic character development, have students read their pieces aloud.

Story Tension
It helps to keep in mind the traditional story mountain (think of rising and falling action).  We need to throw obstacles in our character’s way to make the story more interesting.  It is important to give our characters a little bit of trouble that grows over time.

Strategy: Highlight the most important moment in the story.  This should be the part of the story that has the most words.

Language (The Grammar of Story)
We need to use specific nouns (tiny details) – names give you images).  Look at objects and be specific – use brand names.

It helps to use strong nouns and verbs (a great go-to conference or small group that immediately makes the writing stronger.)  Use adjectives and adverbs sparingly.  Beware of passive language – get rid of was, have, had, and –ing.

Another great conference or small group work is to look at sentence structure/length. Play with the length of sentences to convey the pace, emotion, tone or mood of the moment (short sentences versus long sentences).


Tuesday, August 20, 2013

Writing Models for Kids

As we are thinking about demonstration texts for our UoS, it's helpful to think about making sure that our models are inside of our students Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). 

As I was digging through notes from institutes past, I stumbled upon the following notes from a February Institute in 2009 entitled: Using Touchstone Texts to Teach Reading and Writing Well.  This particular small group section was led by Emily Smith, who is now a Senior Research Assistant and Lead Staff Developer at the Teachers College Reading and Writing Project.  

She gave the following tips for writing models (or demonstration texts) for young writers:

1. Write forward as best you can (and then write backward) with your students in mind and some of the predictable problems in the UoS.

2. Look at a piece of student writing and try to replicate the writing moves that run through the piece in the demonstration text.  Make your text assessment based: What are your observations of students and their writing based on conferring, and reading their pieces? What trends and patterns are evident in the whole class?


3. Focus on different qualities in your student models depending on the needs of your students. Instead of just focusing on how to elaborate, write through the lens of structure to improve or lighten (write backward) the writing.

Look at the demonstration text below. Which grade level or age group could you imagine using this text with? What moves are evident in the piece? What could you imagine teaching in a conference, small group, mini-lesson etc.?